The Influence of the Norman Conquest on Anglo-Saxon Gardens

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was drastically changed by the arrival of the Normans in the later eleventh century. The Normans were much better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. Still, home life, household architecture, and decoration were out of the question until the Normans taken over the rest of the population. Most often designed upon windy peaks, castles were fundamental structures that enabled their inhabitants to spend time and space to offensive and defensive schemes, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings frequently installed in only the most fecund, broad valleys. 115439_5505__59945.jpg The sterile fortresses did not provide for the quiet avocation of gardening. The finest specimen of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture existent presently is Berkeley Castle. It is said that the keep was introduced during William the Conqueror's time. As a technique of deterring attackers from tunneling under the walls, an immense terrace surrounds the building. On one of these parapets is a scenic bowling green covered in grass and bordered by an aged hedge of yew that has been designed into coarse battlements.

Water Fountains and Wildlife

Wildlife and pets are by nature attracted to bird feeders and water fountains. Birds must have water to drink, bathe in, as well a place to groom, or preen. Birds including robins, thrushes, orioles, or warblers prefer the movement of water from a fountain and are not necessarily drawn to bird feeders. Many birds prefer moving water versus standing water, making an outdoor fountain even more enticing than a bowl-shaped bird bath. Birds are greatly attracted to the trickling and splashing music produced.

As dog owners will agree these outdoor fountains are a great water resource for the four-legged creatures. During the sweltering summer months, dogs and cats will be outside searching for fresh water. Because water in fountains is always moving, they do not need much maintenance, whereas the still water of birdbaths collect debris and require more attention.

The Early, Unappreciated Water-Moving Solution

Unfortuitously, Agrippa’s wonderful plan for raising water was not discussed a great deal after 1588, when Andrea Bacci acclaimed it openly.

It may possibly have come to be dated once the Villa Medici was in a position to obtain water from the Acqua Felice, the early modern channel, in 1592. The simpler explanation is that it was ignored about when Ferdinando left for Florence in 1588, after the passing of his brother Francesco di Medici, to trade his rank as cardinal for one as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. #P# There might have been different remarkable water-related works in Renaissance landscapes in the late sixteenth century, such as water fountains that played tunes, water caprices (or giochi d’acqua) and even scenographic water exhibits, but none were motorized by water that defied the force of gravity.

Where did Garden Water Fountains Originate from?

The dramatic or ornamental effect of a fountain is just one of the purposes it fulfills, in addition to providing drinking water and adding a decorative touch to your property.

Originally, fountains only served a practical purpose. People in cities, towns and villages received their drinking water, as well as water to bathe and wash, via aqueducts or springs in the area. Used until the nineteenth century, in order for fountains to flow or shoot up into the air, their source of water such as reservoirs or aqueducts, had to be higher than the water fountain in order to benefit from the power of gravity. Designers thought of fountains as wonderful additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to provide clean water and honor the artist responsible for creating it. Roman fountains often depicted images of animals or heroes made of metal or stone masks. Throughout the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden planners included fountains to create mini depictions of the gardens of paradise. King Louis XIV of France wanted to demonstrate his dominion over nature by including fountains in the Gardens of Versailles. The Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries were glorified with baroque style fountains built to mark the place of entry of Roman aqueducts.

Since indoor plumbing became the norm of the day for clean, drinking water, by the end of the 19th century urban fountains were no longer needed for this purpose and they became purely decorative. Gravity was substituted by mechanical pumps in order to enable fountains to bring in clean water and allow for amazing water displays.

Beautifying city parks, honoring people or events and entertaining, are some of the uses of modern-day fountains.

The Cascade Fountain at Chatsworth Garden

The Cascade garden fountain creates a dazzling centerpiece to the gardens and is situated at the back of Chatsworth House. For 200 yards towards the dwelling is a collection of 24 irregularly positioned stone steps stretching down the hillside. The Cascade, also completely gravity fed, is based on a 17th century French concept. In 1696, this particular water fountain was built for the original Duke of Devonshire and has stayed unaltered ever since that time. At the top of the fountain, from which water flows downward, is the Cascade House. The residence, decorated on the outside with ocean creatures in bas-relief, is a small building. Making the Cascade House to become part of the Cascade pageant, on special occasions water pressure to the Cascade can be enhanced, as liquid goes through conduits on its rooftop and from the mouths of its carved sea creatures, before continuing down the Cascade. The sounds of the water plunging varies as it descends down the Cascades because of the small variation in the size of every single step thereby supplying a wonderful and restful accompaniment to a trek through the gardens. This cascade was chosen in a survey, carried out by Country Life in 2004, as England'sbest water fountain.

Your Herb Container Garden: The Basic Concepts

A lot of gardeners see that they are drawn to knowing more about herbal plants as they are simple to cultivate and fun to use in cooking. They are effortless to grow inside our homes or out, and offer immediate gratification when used in marinades, various recipes, sauces and soups. When frost starts to come around you could trim your herbs, but if you are sensible and have them placed in pots all that you have to do is move the pots indoors to protect them. If you are thinking of adding perennial herbs to your back garden, you are making a good choice because they do not die easily or need replanting after every year goes by. Over and above this, you really should give consideration to your personal taste preferences when selecting herbs to flavor dinners. Consider the cuisine you prefer when picking out which herbs to plant in your garden. For instance, if you cook a lot of Italian food you may want to grow basil and oregano. If you like Latin food, choose cilantro. You must determine where your herb garden will be placed in order to figure out which herbs will grow best. It may be quicker to plant right into the ground if you live in a place that has warmer winters and colder summers. This makes it so you do not have to be concerned about making planters. It is also a wonderful way to landscape your garden. Are you nervous that your area has horrible climate that might cause your vegetation to die or become dormant? Try out planters because with their flexibility and usefulness allows you to move the herbs inside at any time.

The City Of Rome, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, And Outdoor Water Fountains

In Rome’s city center, there are many easily recognized public fountains. One of the most distinguished sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed, conceptualized and built almost all of them. He was furthermore a urban designer, in addition to his abilities as a water fountain engineer, and records of his life's work are noticeable throughout the streets of Rome. A famous Florentine sculptor, Bernini's father mentored his young son, and they eventually moved to Rome to totally exhibit their artwork, mainly in the form of public water fountains and water fountains. An exceptional workman, Bernin received encouragement and the patronage of popes and well known artists. Initially he was well known for his sculpting skills. Most famously in the Vatican, he made use of a base of experience in classic Greek architecture and melded it flawlessly with Roman marble. He was influenced by many great artists, however, Michelangelo had the biggest effect on his work.


The Dispersion of Outdoor Fountain Design Knowledge
The circulated papers and illustrated publications of the time contributed to the evolution of scientific innovation, and were the chief methods of... read more
How Mechanical Designs of Fountains Spread
The circulated documents and illustrated pamphlets of the time contributed to the advancements of scientific technology, and were the primary means of dissiminating useful... read more
Bernini's Public Fountains
There are countless famed Roman water features in its city center. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, one of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century planned, conceptualized and built virtually all of them. Also a city builder, he had abilities as a fountain ... read more
Bernini's Water Features
There are many celebrated fountains in the city center of Rome. Almost all of them were planned, designed and constructed by one of the finest sculptors and designers of... read more
Water Features: The Minoan Civilization
During archaeological excavations on the island of Crete, a variety of kinds of conduits have been identified. These were applied to provide cities with water as well as to lessen flooding and... read more
Contemporary Statuary in Early Greece
Sculptors adorned the lavish columns and archways with renderings of the gods until the period came to a close and most Greeks had begun to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred; at that instant, it grew to be more common for sculptors be... read more