The Outcome of the Norman Conquest on Anglo Saxon Gardens

Anglo-Saxons felt extraordinary modifications to their daily lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. brk_333_1_1__30626.jpg At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation. But before centering on home-life or having the occasion to contemplate domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire population. Monasteries and castles served separate purposes, so while monasteries were enormous stone structures assembled in only the most fruitful, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the people focused on learning offensive and defensive practices. The tranquil practice of gardening was unlikely in these dreary bastions. Berkeley Castle is perhaps the most intact model in existence nowadays of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture. It is said that the keep was introduced during William the Conqueror's time. A significant terrace serves as a deterrent to invaders who would try to mine the walls of the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an old yew hedge cut into the form of crude battlements.

Points to Consider When Installing a Garden Water Fountain

A water source and an electrical socket are two essential items that many people do not consider when determining where they want to setup their garden fountain. The thrill of owning one occasionally causes people to overlook the technical aspects when setting it up for the first time. Since standard power cords are only 12 feet in length, you might need to add an extension cord to reach the nearest 120v outlet. A practical place to get water is vital since you will need to fill your fountain. Carrying large quantities of water requires strength so you do not want to have to lug it a long way. A nearby hose can make filling the fountain a lot more convenient. The ideal setup is with a water fountain autofill, but this has to be hooked up to an external water line and requires a professional to install it.

Disappearing Water Fountains

Disappearing fountains also go by the term “pondless” fountains. It is referred to as “disappearing” due to the fact the water source is below ground. Disappearing fountains should be put near any place people hang out regularly, as they add so much to the surrounding area. There are numerous types of them including millstones, ceramic urns, granite columns, and natural-looking waterfalls.

Disappearing fountains also offer many benefits. Any danger to anyone standing around it is averted since the water source is underneath ground level. Consequently, it presents no threat to children. Moreover, no water can evaporate since it is not subjected to the open air. Therefore, your fountain will not waste as much water as other styles of fountains. This type of fountain is recommended if you do not have a lot of time to clean it often since neither debris nor algae can get to it underground. Finally, you can have one just about anywhere since it takes up so little room.

How Mechanical Concepts of Fountains Spread

Throughout the European countries, the principal means of dissiminating practical hydraulic facts and fountain design suggestions were the circulated pamphlets and illustrated publications of the day, which contributed to the development of scientific technology.

An internationally celebrated pioneer in hydraulics in the late 1500's was a French water fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. His know-how in creating gardens and grottoes with built-in and ingenious water fountains began in Italy and with mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. In France, near the end of his lifetime, he wrote “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a book which turned into the essential text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. The publication modified key hydraulic advancements since classical antiquity as well as explaining contemporary hydraulic technologies. Dominant among these works were those of Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, a mechanized method of moving water. Sunlight warming water in a couple of containers concealed in a room next to an decorative water fountain was displayed in one illustration. What occurs is the hot liquid expanded, rises and closes up the conduits heading to the water feature, thereby leading to stimulation. Models for pumps, water wheels, water features and outdoor ponds are also included in the guide.

Exterior Water Features Come in Many Forms and Sizes

Make your dream a reality by making an oasis of tranquility in your yard. Incorporating a fountain into your garden provides tranquility as well as a variety of powerful effects that come with having a water feature.

The flood of water sent high up into the air by a spouting fountain is an impressive sight to see. It is possible to have one of these fitted into an existing, ample pond. These types of fountains are often found in parks or historical stately homes.

One of the myriad examples of an outdoor water feature is a stylish wall fountain. If you are keen on include a water feature, but are concerned because you have a small yard, do not hesitate to incorporate one of these. Spouting fountains normally make quite an impact whereas wall features are more of a subtle kind of water feature. It is simple undertaking wherein a small jet of water pours outwards in front of a beautifully textured wall and then flows down only to be pumped up again.

Themed fountains are perfect when the style of your yard allows for them. A cherub holding a spout is one of the possible types of classical-styled statues you can use if you want your fountain to suit a rustically themed cottage or garden. Something special and striking could be an alternative for more modern gardens.

Deciding what to do is completely in your hands.

Tiered fountains are charming because the water runs down multiple levels. Water flowing down multiple tiers of this water feature is the primary attribute of a cascading fountain.

The space needed for an outdoor fountain can be vast, therefore, a better alternative is to install a wall fountain or a pondless fountain. Due to the fact that the reservoirs required for these kinds of fountains are hidden below the ground, you can make the most of the room at your disposal.

Japanese fountains are thought to impart a sense of tranquility and well-being. In this style of water feature the water runs through bamboo sticks. The cycle of water flowing into a rustic-styled recipient or a molded stone repeats itself again and again.

Another style of fountain is made of glass. Featuring shaped metalwork, trellis-style fountains of this type have a more traditional feel. Water features of this kind are a perfect alternative for gardens with many sharp edges as well as contemporary shapes and design. A wondrous effect is produced when water runs down the sheets of glass. In some instances, the water is colored by LED lights as it flows over the glass panels. A rock waterfall fountain (often made of imitation rock) showcases water softly flowing down its façade.

In a bubbling rock fountain, a big rock is drilled with openings and then filled in the center with tubes. In this sort of fountain, water is pushed upwards at low pressure to cause it to bubble and gurgle at the top. Downward flowing water appears as soft dribble as it moves down the sides of the rock to return to its base. Gardens with limited space are good places to include this style of fountain. The low pressure used in this sort of fountain inhibits water from being spattered about in case of a windy day.

Solar fountains have recently gained in popularity because they are powered by sunlight. There are numerous reasons for this newly found interest such as the absence of cables, less difficulty in running them, a reduction in electricity bills, and the advantages to the environment. The wide-ranging designs in outdoor solar-powered fountains means you will not have to compromise on style.

The Roman Water Fountains of Michelangelo

During the 16th century two renown Florentine sculptors by the names of Michelangelo and Ammannati made the first wall fountains in Rome. The earliest fountain Michelangelo designed came in 1536 with the construction of the Campidoglio in Rome which was to make part of the Palazzo Senatorio's façade. A conduit from the Aqua Felice was constructed later and it delivered water to the Capitol making a more lavish water effect possible. Michelangelo, however, had predicted this which led to use of a larger basin styled on the forms of the late Cinquecento.

Was the famed maestro the originator of the wall fountain? His designs undoubtedly influenced the style of fountain which predominates throughout Italy. The styles seen at the Fountain of the River Gods at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia 1, and the Fountain of the Mugnone, set between the flight of steps on the main axis of the Villa Pratolino, are other examples of this style.

It seemed to be Michelangelo’s predestination to combine classic Roman characteristics into his fountains instead of using his own tremendous talents to design original pieces. The Florentine maestro was commissioned by Julius III (1550-1555) to design a unique fountain to be placed at the top of the passage of the Belvedere in the Vatican. A marble figure of Moses striking a rock streaming water was to be built as embellishment for the fountain. However, an ancient figure of Cleopatra replaced the statue of Moses because the latter would take too much time create. Producing a new design by the famed sculptor was thought to be more complicated than placing an ancient figure above the fountain.

Tall Fountains Around the World

Known as the King Fahd Fountain (1985) found in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, it is the highest continuously functioning fountain in the world. Attaining incredible heights above the Red Sea, this fountain propels water 260 meters (853 feet) in the sky.

Reaching water heights of 202 meters (663 feet), the World Cup Fountain in the Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002), is recognized as the second highest worldwide.

Occupying third place is the Gateway Geyser (1995), located close to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri. It rockets water 192 meters (630 feet) into the air and is currently the tallest fountain in the United States.

Next is Port Fountain (2006) in Karachi, Pakistan, where the water jets 190 meters (620 feet) high.

Number 4 is Water at Fountain Park (1970) situated in Fountain Hills, Arizona - it can reach up to 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are working, even though it normally only reaches up to 91 meters (300 feet).

The Dubai Fountain, opened to the public in 2009, is located near the Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest building. It performs every 1/2 hour to previously recorded songs and shoots water up to 73 meters (240 feet) in height -it also has built in extreme shooters, though only used during special events, which reach 150 meters (490 feet) in height.

Number 7 is the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, finished in 1970, launching water 147 meters (482 feet) high.

And finally comes the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951) which measures 140 meters (460 feet) in height.


The Distribution of Garden Water Fountains Manufacturing Knowledge in Europe
The published documents and illustrated pamphlets of the day contributed to the evolution of scientific innovation, and were the primary means of transmitting useful... read more
The Father Of Roman Fountain Design
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Historic Crete & The Minoans: Fountains
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The Early Society: Fountains
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A Brief History of the Early Public Garden Fountains
Water fountains were originally practical in function, used to convey water from canals or creeks to towns and villages, supplying the residents with fresh water to drink, wash, and cook with. To make water flow... read more
The Original Water Features of Human History
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