The First Outdoor Water Features of Human History

Towns and villages relied on functional water fountains to conduct water for preparing food, bathing, and cleaning up from nearby sources like ponds, streams, or springs. The force of gravity was the power source of water fountains up until the end of the 19th century, using the forceful power of water traveling downhill from a spring or brook to push the water through spigots or other outlets. Fountains all through history have been created as memorials, impressing local citizens and tourists alike. If you saw the earliest fountains, you wouldn't identify them as fountains. twf028-ld__25647.jpg Designed for drinking water and ceremonial reasons, the very first fountains were very simple carved stone basins. Pure stone basins as fountains have been recovered from 2000 BC. The earliest civilizations that utilized fountains relied on gravity to drive water through spigots. The placement of the fountains was determined by the water source, which is why you’ll normally find them along reservoirs, waterways, or rivers. The Romans began constructing ornate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were bronze or natural stone masks of animals and mythological heroes. The City of Rome had an intricate system of aqueducts that provided the water for the countless fountains that were located throughout the urban center.

Your Herb Garden: The Basics

A lot of gardeners see that they are attracted to understanding more about herbs as they are simple to cultivate and enjoyable to use in cooking. They are easy to grow inside the house or out, and offer immediate gratification when used in marinades, various recipes, sauces and soups. An herb garden is easy to maintain with minimum daily care, and planter gardens and potted herbs can be easily moved inside once autumn frosts begin, making it possible to maintain an herb garden all year long. Since perennial herbal plants do not die easily or require replanting every end of the year, they are a practical (and fun) addition to your garden. In addition, the sorts of herbs you prefer to cook with should affect your personal herb selection.

Basil, oregano, and thyme are great herbs to plant if you really enjoy cooking and eating Italian food. If you prefer Latin themed food, you may decide to plant cilantro instead. The place of your herb garden will define what herbs can be planted and how long they will thrive. If you live in a gentle climate it may be much better to plant right into the ground due to the warmer winters and cool summer seasons. It is both an attractive way to landscape your yard and an effortless choice because you do not need to build or buy planters. There is nothing you can do to get away from harsh weather conditions conditions that might affect your plants. However, there's hope because planters can be relocated indoors whenever there's bad weather outside so they are flexible and convenient for your herbs.

Acqua Vergine: The Answer to Rome's Water Troubles

Prior to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was established in Rome, citizens who dwelled on hills had to travel further down to get their water from natural sources. If residents living at higher elevations did not have access to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to count on the other existing technologies of the day, cisterns that collected rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that received the water from under ground. To provide water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they applied the emerging process of redirecting the stream from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. During the length of the aqueduct’s passage were pozzi, or manholes, that gave access. Even though they were originally manufactured to make it possible to support the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi started out using the manholes to gather water from the channel, commencing when he obtained the property in 1543. It appears that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t enough to meet his needs. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran under his residential property.

Michelangelo’s Roman Water Fountains

Michelangelo and Ammannati, two renowned Florentine artists, made the first Roman wall fountains during the 16th century. The fountain in the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome, which was finished in 1536 and became part of the façade of the Palazzo Senatorio, was Michelangelo’s first design.

A number of years later, a more extravagant water exhibit was made feasible with the extension of the Aqua Felice into the Capitol. Michelangelo, however, had predicted this which led to use of a larger basin styled on the forms of the late Cinquecento.

Was the famed maestro the mastermind of the wall fountain? The fountain types found in Italy certainly show the influence of his designs. Further examples of this sort of structure can be seen in the Fountain of the River Gods at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia 1, and the Fountain of the Mugnone which is located between flights of stairs on the central axis of the Villa Pratolino.

It seemed to be Michelangelo’s destiny to combine classic Roman elements into his fountains instead of using his own tremendous talents to design original pieces. A new fountain at the top of the Belvedere in the Vatican was authorized by Julius III (1550-1555) and it fell to the great artist to create a unique structure. The talented artist was commissioned to design a marble figure of Moses striking a stone from which water streamed forth. Unfortunately for the sculptor, this idea was denied because it would take a lot of time to build and a classic statue of Cleopatra was used instead. It was considered easier to use a classic piece of art above the fountain rather than have the eminent artist design a totally new figure.

Pets and Wildlife Enjoy Water Fountains

Wildlife and pets are naturally drawn to bird feeders and water fountains. Drinking, bathing, and preening are some of the things birds need to do. Birds including robins, thrushes, orioles, or warblers prefer the motion of water from a fountain and are not necessarily drawn to bird feeders. Many flying creatures enjoy running water rather than of still water, thus making such outdoor features much more appealing than bowl shaped birdbaths. Birds are greatly attracted to the trickling and splashing music produced.

Dogs love fountains as they provide another place to drink water. Dogs and cats will be outdoors looking out for clean water during hot weather. Because water in fountains is always moving, they do not need much maintenance, whereas the still water of birdbaths collect debris and require more attention.

Find Serenity with Outdoor Water Features

Simply having water in your garden can have a significant effect on your health. The loud noises in your neighborhood can be masked by the soft sounds of a fountain. This is a great spot to relax and experience the natural world around you. Water treatments are common right now and often take place in the mountains or near beaches and rivers. So if you desire a little piece of heaven nearby, a pond or fountain in your own garden is the answer.

The Main Characteristics of Classic Greek Statues

Archaic Greeks were well known for providing the first freestanding statuary; up till then, most carvings were formed out of walls and pillars as reliefs. For the most part the statues, or kouros figures, were of young and nice-looking male or female (kore) Greeks. Representing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were crafted to appear rigid and commonly had foot forward; the males were vigorous, sturdy, and naked. The kouroi became life-sized beginning in 650 BC. The Archaic period was an awesome point of transformation for the Greeks as they grew into new modes of government, formed novel expressions of art, and attained information of the people and cultures outside of Greece. Still, these conflicts did little to hamper the progression of the Greek civilization.


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