The Minoan Society: Garden Fountains

su5080_3__35714.jpg On the Greek island of Crete, digs have unearthed channels of several sorts. These were applied to furnish urban centers with water as well as to alleviate flooding and get rid of waste. Many were prepared from clay or even rock. Terracotta was employed for waterways and pipes, both rectangle-shaped and spherical. The cone-like and U-shaped clay piping which were uncovered have not been found in any other civilization. Terracotta pipes were laid under the flooring at Knossos Palace and used to circulate water. The pipelines also had other uses including collecting water and conveying it to a centralized place for storing. To make this feasible, the piping had to be created to handle: Below ground Water Transportation: Originally this system would seem to have been created not for ease but to supply water to specific individuals or rituals without it being noticed. Quality Water Transportation: Many scholars feel that these pipelines were utilized to generate a different distribution system for the residence.

The Dissemination of Water Fountain Design Innovation

Throughout the European countries, the chief means of spreading useful hydraulic facts and fountain design suggestions were the published papers and illustrated books of the time, which added to the evolution of scientific technology. An unnamed French fountain engineer came to be an internationally celebrated hydraulic pioneer in the late 1500's. With imperial commissions in Brussels, London and Germany, he started his career in Italy, acquiring know-how in garden design and grottoes with built-in and ingenious water hydraulics. The book, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” authored towards the end of his life in France, turned out to be the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Replacing principal hydraulic discoveries of classical antiquity, the book also highlights modern hydraulic technologies. Archimedes, the inventor of the water screw, had his work featured and these included a mechanical means to move water. Sunlight heated the water in two concealed vessels next to the beautiful water feature were displayed in an illustration. The end result: the water fountain is triggered by the heated liquid expanding and ascending up the piping. Models for pumps, water wheels, water features and outdoor ponds are also covered in the book.

Your Yard Can Improve with Feng Shui

Add feng shui design to the layout of your yard so it can carry energy into your household.

Do not be concerned if your yard is considered too small for feng shui design, as size is relatively unimportant. Of course, a huge area is great if you have it, but rest assured that feng shui works just as well in smaller spaces as well.

The same tools you employ to introduce feng shui design into your home can be used in the garden. In order to understand the energy map, or bagua, of your garden, you will first want to understand your home’s bagua.

Before getting going, make sure you grasp the five elements of feng shui so that you can maximize their energy.

An example of this is that Earth is the feng shui element you should have in the northeast part of your garden because that part of your garden connects to the energy of personal growth and self-cultivation. The ideal addition to the northeast corner of your yard might be a tranquil Zen garden decorated with natural stone, as they represent the Earth element in feng shui.

Think about introducing a water feature into these feng shui areas: East (health & family), North (career & path in life), or Southeast (money and abundance).

Rome, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, And Water Features

There are many celebrated water fountains in the city center of Rome. Almost all of them were planned, architected and built by one of the finest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Marks of his life's efforts are apparent throughout the roads of Rome because, in addition to his skills as a fountain builder, he was also a city builder. To totally express their artwork, primarily in the form of community water features and water features, Bernini's father, a distinguished Florentine sculptor, guided his young son, and they ultimately relocated in the Roman Capitol. The young Bernini earned encouragement from Popes and relevant artists alike, and was an exceptional worker.

At the beginning he was known for his sculptural abilities. An authority in historical Greek architecture, he utilized this knowledge as a base and melded it flawlessly with Roman marble, most notably in the Vatican. Though many artists had an impact on his work, Michelangelo had the most profound effect.

Bernini’s Very First Italian Fountains

Bernini's earliest fountain, named Barcaccia, is a masterful work of art found at the bottom of the Trinita dei Monti in Piaza di Spagna. This spot continues to be filled with Roman locals and tourists who like to exchanging gossip or going over the day's news. The streets neighboring his fountain have come to be one of the city’s most stylish meeting places, something which would certainly have pleased Bernini himself. The master's very first water fountain of his professional life was built at around 1630 at the request of Pope Urbano VIII. The fountain’s central theme is based on an a massive ship slowly sinking into the Mediterranean Sea. The great 16th century flood of the Tevere, which left the entire region inundated with water, was memorialized by the fountain according to documents from the time. In 1665 Bernini journeyed to France, in what was to be his only extended absence from Italy.

The Good Sides of Disappearing Water Features

There are two labels for this style of fountain: “disappearing” and “pondless”. The origin of the water is not visible because it is below the surface of the ground. Disappearing fountains should be put near any place people hang out frequently, as they add so much to the surrounding area. It is not hard to find the design that is right for you, as there are so many to pick from such as millstones, ceramic urns, waterfalls, and also those with granite columns.

Disappearing fountains also offer many benefits. The water rises from underground and does not form a large pool above ground so any danger to those around it is minimized. That said, you will not have to be anxious about the safety of your children. Moreover, you will not need to worry about losing water to evaporation since it is stored below ground. As a result, your fountain will not use as much water as other types of fountains. It is really low-maintenance since it is below ground and not exposed to debris or algae. Finally, you can put one just about anywhere given that it takes up so little room.

The Virtuosity of Michelangelo’s Roman Wall Fountains

The 16th century saw the construction of the earliest Roman wall fountains, the designs of two reknowned Florentine sculptures, Michelangelo and Ammannati. Michelangelo’s first fountain was unveiled in 1536 in the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome and makes up part of the front of the Palazzo Senatorio. Some years later, a more extravagant water show was made viable with the extension of the Aqua Felice into the Capitol. Anticipating this, Michelangelo had added a more sizable basin styled on the late Cinquecento.

Was the reknowned sculptor the earliest to create wall fountains? Italy’s fountains truly show the impact his designs had on the styles seen there. More examples of this sort of structure can be seen in the Fountain of the River Gods at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia 1, and the Fountain of the Mugnone which is found between flights of stairs on the central axis of the Villa Pratolino.

Michelangelo’s unique talent was put aside because he was compelled to design fountains combining classical elements and a Roman style. A new fountain at the top of the Belvedere in the Vatican was commissioned by Julius III (1550-1555) and it fell to the great artist to create a unique structure. The famed artist was asked to design a marble figure of Moses striking a stone from which water streamed forth. Unfortunately for the sculptor, this plan was denied because it would take a lot of time to build and a classic statue of Cleopatra was used instead. A design by the well-known artist was thought to be too time-consuming, therefore, an ancient sculpture placed above the fountain seemed to be a better alternative.


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