The Impact of the Norman Invasion on Anglo-Saxon Landscaping

Anglo-Saxons encountered great modifications to their daily lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. p-603__94639.jpg At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation. However, there was no time for home life, domesticated design, and decoration until the Normans had overcome the whole realm. Most often built upon windy peaks, castles were straightforward structures that allowed their inhabitants to devote time and space to offensive and defensive schemes, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings frequently added in only the most fecund, extensive valleys. Gardening, a peaceful occupation, was unfeasible in these fruitless fortifications. The early Anglo-Norman style of architecture is represented in Berkeley Castle, which is perhaps the most untouched illustration we have. The keep is said to date from William the Conqueror's time. A large terrace recommended for exercising and as a means to stop enemies from mining below the walls runs about the building. On one of these parapets is a picturesque bowling green covered in grass and surrounded by an aged hedge of yew that has been shaped into coarse battlements.

The Beginnings of Contemporary Wall Fountains

Hundreds of classic Greek documents were translated into Latin under the authority of the scholarly Pope Nicholas V, who ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455. It was imperative for him to embellish the city of Rome to make it worthy of being known as the capital of the Christian world. In 1453 the Pope commissioned the reconstruction of the Aqua Vergine, an historic Roman aqueduct which had carried fresh drinking water into the city from eight miles away. A mostra, a monumental dedicatory fountain constructed by ancient Romans to mark the point of arrival of an aqueduct, was a custom which was restored by Nicholas V. The Trevi Fountain now occupies the area formerly filled with a wall fountain built by Leon Battista Albert, an architect employed by the Pope. The Trevi Fountain as well as the well-known baroque fountains located in the Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona were eventually supplied with water from the modified aqueduct he had reconstructed.

The Benefits of Having an Interior Wall Water Element in your Home or Work Place

Add an ornamental and modern touch to your home by installing an indoor wall fountain. These types of fountains lower noise pollution in your home or company, thereby allowing your loved ones and clients to have a stress-fee and tranquil environment. Your employees and clients alike will take notice and complement your new interior wall water feature. All those who come close to your interior water feature will be impressed and even your most difficult detractor will be dazzled.

A wall fountain is a great addition to any home because it offers a tranquil place where you sit and watch a favorite show after working all day. Anyone near an indoor fountain will benefit from it because its sounds emit negative ions, eliminate dust and pollen from the air, and also lend to a soothing environment.

Water Transport Solutions in Historic Rome

Rome’s very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, citizens living at higher elevations had to depend on local streams for their water. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the sole technologies around at the time to supply water to areas of high elevation. To furnish water to Pincian Hill in the early sixteenth century, they implemented the brand-new method of redirecting the current from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground network. During the length of the aqueduct’s route were pozzi, or manholes, that gave entry. During the roughly nine years he had the residential property, from 1543 to 1552, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi utilized these manholes to take water from the network in containers, though they were actually established for the goal of cleaning and servicing the aqueduct. Apparently, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t adequate to fulfill his needs. To give himself with a more effective means to obtain water, he had one of the manholes opened, offering him access to the aqueduct below his property.

The Genesis Of Outdoor Fountains

The amazing or ornamental effect of a fountain is just one of the purposes it fulfills, in addition to providing drinking water and adding a decorative touch to your property.

Pure practicality was the original purpose of fountains. Residents of cities, townships and small towns used them as a source of drinking water and a place to wash, which meant that fountains needed to be linked to nearby aqueduct or spring.

Up to the late nineteenth century, water fountains had to be near an aqueduct or reservoir and more elevated than the fountain so that gravity could make the water flow down or shoot high into the air. Fountains were an excellent source of water, and also served to adorn living areas and celebrate the designer. The main components used by the Romans to create their fountains were bronze or stone masks, mostly depicting animals or heroes. During the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden designers included fountains in their designs to mimic the gardens of paradise. King Louis XIV of France wanted to illustrate his dominion over nature by including fountains in the Gardens of Versailles. The Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries were extolled with baroque style fountains built to mark the place of entry of Roman aqueducts.

Urban fountains built at the end of the 19th century functioned only as decorative and celebratory ornaments since indoor plumbing provided the essential drinking water. The introduction of special water effects and the recycling of water were two things made possible by replacing gravity with mechanical pumps.

Nowadays, fountains decorate public spaces and are used to recognize individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

Roman Water Fountains: Michelangelo’s Masterpieces

Michelangelo and Ammannati, two renowned Florentine maestros, made the first Roman wall fountains during the 16th century. The fountain in the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome, which was finalized in 1536 and became part of the façade of the Palazzo Senatorio, was Michelangelo’s first creation. Built some years later, a conduit from the Aqua Felice was added which carried water into the Capitol permitting a greater water display. Styled on the late Cinquecento, Michelangelo made a larger basin, anticipating the construction of the conduit.

The question remains as to whether the celebrated sculptor was the first to build wall fountains. The fountain types seen in Italy certainly show the influence of his designs. Further examples of this type of structure can be seen in the Fountain of the River Gods at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia 1, and the Fountain of the Mugnone which is found between flights of stairs on the central axis of the Villa Pratolino.

Rather than creating fountains based on his own genius, Michelangelo was fated to integrating classical elements into Roman-styled structures. The Florentine master was instructed by Julius III (1550-1555) to design a distinctive fountain to be placed at the top of the passageway of the Belvedere in the Vatican. The fountain was to be adorned with a marble figure of Moses hitting a stone from which water flowed. The idea of the Moses figure was abandoned, however, because of the time it would take to build it and was therefore replaced by an antique image of Cleopatra. Completing a new design by the renown sculptor was thought to be more complicated than placing an ancient figure above the fountain.

What Are Large Garden Fountains Manufactured From?

While today’s garden fountains are made in a variety of materials, most are made from metal. Metallic ones offer clean lines and unique sculptural accents and will fit in with nearly any decorative style and budget. If you have a modern look and feel to your interior design, your yard and garden should mirror that same look.

A common choice today is copper, and it is used in the making of many sculptural garden fountains. Copper is appropriate for many fountain styles, including tabletop and cascade water fountains, and can be placed either inside or outside - making it a great choice. Another advantage of copper fountains is they are flexible and come in a wide range of styles.

Brass water fountains are also popular, although they tend to have a more classic look than copper ones. You will see a lot of brass fountains, as their interesting artwork makes them popular even if they are on the more traditional side.

Arguably the most cutting-edge of all metals is stainless steel. For an immediate increase in the value and comfort of your garden, get one of the contemporary steel designs. As with all fountains, you can get any size you choose.

For people who want the visual appeal of a metal fountain but desire a lighter weight and more affordable option, fiberglass is the answer. It is simple to clean and maintain a fiberglass water fountain, yet another reason they are popular.


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