The Effect of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Gardens

Anglo-Saxons felt great changes to their day-to-day lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. The Normans were much better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. However, there was no time for home life, domesticated design, and decoration until the Normans had conquered the whole region. Monasteries and castles served separate purposes, so while monasteries were large stone structures constructed in only the most fruitful, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the residents focused on understanding offensive and defensive tactics. 94-134-13901__86626.jpg The barren fortresses did not provide for the calm avocation of gardening. Berkeley Castle is possibly the most intact model in existence at present of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture. It is said that the keep was created during William the Conqueror's time. A large terrace meant for strolling and as a way to stop enemies from mining below the walls runs around the building. A scenic bowling green, covered in grass and surrounded by battlements clipped out of an ancient yew hedge, makes one of the terraces.

The Numerous Material Options for your Wall Water Feature

Pick the best wall fountain for you from the number of materials available on the market. Since fiberglass is a sturdy, lightweight, weather proof material, it is a perfect option. Shipping and delivery of these types of fountains are easy because they do not take up a great deal of space on the delivery truck.

They come in lots of different materials such as stone, clay, wood, and different types of metal, including copper. The best material for your fountain remains copper, even though it has become quite costly due to recent price increases. Typical Mediterranean fountains seen in Italy, Spain, and France can usually be imitated by using cast stone. You can put these durable cast stone concrete features on the ground against a wall as they are perfect for this purpose. Such fountains, which come in a variety of different colors, are manufactured in the USA because of high transportation costs.

The Genius of Michelangelo’s Roman Water Fountains

Michelangelo and Ammannati, two celebrated Florentine artists, created the first Roman wall fountains during the 16th century. The first fountain Michelangelo created came in 1536 with the construction of the Campidoglio in Rome which was to make part of the Palazzo Senatorio's façade.

A number of years later, a more extravagant water show was made viable with the extension of the Aqua Felice into the Capitol. Anticipating this, Michelangelo had added a more sizable basin styled on the late Cinquecento.

Did the introduction of wall fountains begin with the famed artist? The fountain styles found in Italy definitely show the influence of his designs. The Fountain of the River Gods at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia 1, and the Fountain of the Mugnone found between flights of stairs on the main axis of the Villa Pratolino are further illustrations of this type of structure.

Michelangelo’s great talent was put aside because he was compelled to design fountains combining classical elements and a Roman style. A new fountain at the top of the Belvedere in the Vatican was commissioned by Julius III (1550-1555) and it fell to the great artist to create an archetypal structure. The famed artist was asked to design a marble figure of Moses striking a stone from which water flowed. However, an ancient figure of Cleopatra replaced the depiction of Moses because the latter would take too much time create. A design by the well-known artist was thought to be too time-consuming, therefore, an ancient figure placed above the fountain seemed to be a better alternative.

A Short History of Early Public Fountains

As originally conceived, water fountains were designed to be practical, directing water from creeks or reservoirs to the residents of towns and settlements, where the water could be utilized for cooking food, washing, and drinking. Gravity was the power supply of water fountains up until the end of the 19th century, using the forceful power of water traveling down hill from a spring or brook to force the water through spigots or other outlets. Fountains spanning history have been crafted as monuments, impressing hometown citizens and visitors alike.

The contemporary fountains of today bear little resemblance to the first water fountains. Basic stone basins sculpted from local material were the very first fountains, used for religious functions and drinking water. 2,000 B.C. is when the oldest identified stone fountain basins were used. The earliest civilizations that utilized fountains depended on gravity to drive water through spigots. The location of the fountains was influenced by the water source, which is why you’ll normally find them along aqueducts, waterways, or rivers. The Romans began constructing decorative fountains in 6 BC, most of which were metallic or natural stone masks of animals and mythological characters. A well-designed system of reservoirs and aqueducts kept Rome's public fountains supplied with fresh water.

Explore the World’s Tallest Fountains

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia has the highest continuously- running fountain known as the King Fahd Fountain (1985). It spouts out water reaching 260 meters (853 feet) above the Red Sea.

The Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002), comes in second with water heights of 202 meters (663 feet).

Next to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri, is the Gateway Geyser (1995) which comes in third place. This fountain is regarded as the tallest in the United States with water reaching up to 192 meters (630 feet).

With water ejected 190 meters (620 feet) in the air, the Port Fountain in Karachi, Pakistan makes it on the list.

Fountain Park in Fountain Hills, Arizona is number 4: it can jet water 171 meters (561 feet) high when the three pumps function at full capacity, it is usually limited to 91 meters (300 feet).

The Dubai Fountain made its first appearance in 2009 close to the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa. The fountain propels water up to 73 meters (240 feet) and performs once every half hour to pre-recorded music - and even has extreme shooters, not used in every show, which reach up to 150 meters (490 feet).

Built in 1970, the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, Australia, comes in at #7 shooting water up to 147 meters (482 feet).

Lastly is the Jet d’Eau (1951) in Geneva, Switzerland, which measures 140 meters (460 feet).

The Cascade Water Fountain at Chatsworth

The Cascade garden fountain creates a spectacular main feature to the gardens and is situated at the rear of Chatsworth House. For 200 yards towards the dwelling is a series of twenty-four irregularly positioned stone steps extending down the hillside. The Cascade, also totally gravity fed, is founded on a 17th century French design. This water fountain has remained unchanged after being designed for the first Duke of Devonshire in 1696. Located at the top of the fountain is the Cascade House, from which water streams downward. A compact structure, the dwelling is decorated on the exterior with sea creatures in bas-relief. Leading to the Cascade House to become part of the Cascade display, on special occasions water pressure to the Cascade can easily be increased, as liquid goes through piping on its roof and from the mouths of its carved marine creatures, before carrying on down the Cascade. Offering a fantastic and relaxing accompaniment to a stroll through the landscape, the minor difference in measurement of each step indicates that the sound of the water cascading downward varies as it falls along the Cascades. Back in 2004, Chatsworth's Cascade was chosen by historians at Country Life as the best water fountain in England.

Agrippa's Astonishing, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting Device

The compliments Agrippa’s water-lifting creation earned from Andrea Bacci in 1588 was temporary. It could be that the Acqua Felice, the second of Rome’s initial modern aqueducts made the system outdated when it was linked to the Villa Medici in 1592. The simpler reason is that it was ignored about when Ferdinando left for Florence in 1588, after the passing of his brother Francesco di Medici, to trade his status as cardinal for one as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. #P# Renaissance landscapes of the later part of the sixteenth century happened to be home to works such as music fountains, scenographic water displays and water caprices (giochi d’acqua), but these were not outfitted with water in ways which defied gravitation itself.


The Circulation of Outdoor Garden Fountain Industrial Knowledge in Europe
Instrumental to the development of scientific technology were the published papers and illustrated publications of the day. They were also the main means of transferring useful hydraulic information and fountain design ideas throughout Europe. An unnamed French... read more
The Father Of Rome's Water Fountain Design And Style
There are numerous celebrated water features in the city center of Rome. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, one of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century designed,... read more
Early Water Supply Solutions in Rome
With the development of the very first raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, people who lived on the city’s hills no longer had to rely exclusively on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. During this time period, there were... read more
Original Water Supply Techniques in The City Of Rome
Previous to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was made in Roma, residents who dwelled on hillsides had to journey even further down to get their water from natural sources. When aqueducts or springs weren’t easily accessible,... read more
Water Delivery Solutions in Early Rome
Rome’s very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, residents residing at higher elevations had to rely on natural creeks for their water. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were... read more
Aqueducts: The Remedy to Rome's Water Challenges
With the development of the first raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, people who lived on the city’s hillsides no longer had to... read more