Anglo-Saxon Landscapes During the Norman Conquest

The introduction of the Normans in the 2nd half of the 11th century irreparably improved The Anglo-Saxon lifestyle. The Normans were better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. However, there was no time for home life, domesticated design, and decoration until the Normans had overcome the whole region. su311_4__01758.jpg Monasteries and castles served different functions, so while monasteries were massive stone structures assembled in only the most productive, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the occupants focused on understanding offensive and defensive tactics. Peaceful activities such as gardening were out of place in these desolate citadels. The early Anglo-Norman style of architecture is portrayed in Berkeley Castle, which is most likely the most untouched illustration we have. The keep is said to date from the time of William the Conqueror. As a technique of deterring attackers from tunneling underneath the walls, an immense terrace surrounds the building. On 1 of these terraces sits a stylish bowling green: it is covered in grass and flanked by an old yew hedge that is formed into the shape of rough ramparts.

Find Peace with Outdoor Water Features

You can find peace and tranquility by just having water in your garden. The noise in your community can be masked by the delicate sounds of a fountain. Nature and recreation are two of the things you will find in your garden. Bodies of water such as seas, oceans and rivers are commonly used in water therapies, as they are regarded as therapeutic. If you want a celestial spot to go to relax your body and mind, get yourself a pond or water fountain.

The Major Characteristics of Ancient Greek Sculpture

The primitive Greeks built the first freestanding statuary, an amazing achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. Symbolizing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were created to appear rigid and typically had foot forward; the males were vigorous, robust, and naked. In about 650 BC, the varieties of the kouroi became life-sized. A significant time of modification for the Greeks, the Archaic period brought about new forms of state, expressions of artwork, and a greater comprehension of people and cultures outside of Greece. Wars like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos, and other wars among city-states are indicatory of the tumultuous nature of the time, which was similar to other periods of historical upset. However, these conflicts did not significantly hinder the advancement of the Greek civilization.

How Your Home or Office Profit from an Indoor Wall Water Feature

One way to enhance your home with a modern style is by installing an indoor wall fountain to your living area. Installing this sort of fountain in your residence or office allows you to create a place for your loved ones and clients where there is little noise as well as minimal stress and maximum relaxation. Installing one of these interior wall water features will also draw the attention and admiration your staff and clients alike. Your interior water feature will most certainly capture the interest of all those in its vicinity, and stymie even your most demanding critic as well.

Your wall {feature|element guarantees you a relaxing evening after a long day’s work and help create a tranquil place where can enjoy watching your favorite sporting event. All those close to an indoor fountain will benefit from it because its sounds emit negative ions, remove dust and pollen from the air, and also lend to a soothing environment.

Rome’s Ingenious Water Transport Systems

Rome’s first raised aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; before that, residents living at higher elevations had to rely on natural springs for their water. If citizens residing at higher elevations did not have accessibility to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to rely on the remaining existing techniques of the time, cisterns that gathered rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that received the water from below ground. To offer water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they applied the emerging method of redirecting the flow from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. Pozzi, or manholes, were made at regular stretches along the aqueduct’s channel. The manholes made it more straightforward to thoroughly clean the channel, but it was also achievable to use buckets to extract water from the aqueduct, as we witnessed with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he bought the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he died. Although the cardinal also had a cistern to collect rainwater, it didn’t supply sufficient water. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat under his property, and he had a shaft established to give him accessibility.

The Earliest Water Fountains

Water fountains were at first practical in purpose, used to deliver water from rivers or creeks to cities and villages, providing the inhabitants with clean water to drink, bathe, and cook with. A source of water higher in elevation than the fountain was necessary to pressurize the movement and send water spraying from the fountain's spout, a technology without equal until the later half of the nineteenth century. Inspiring and impressive, big water fountains have been constructed as memorials in many cultures. When you see a fountain today, that is certainly not what the first water fountains looked like. Basic stone basins sculpted from local stone were the first fountains, used for religious ceremonies and drinking water. Stone basins as fountains have been found from 2000 BC. The force of gravity was the energy source that controlled the earliest water fountains. Situated near reservoirs or springs, the practical public water fountains supplied the local residents with fresh drinking water. The Romans began building elaborate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were bronze or stone masks of wildlife and mythological representations. The extraordinary aqueducts of Rome furnished water to the incredible public fountains, many of which you can travel to today.

The Prevalence of Water Features in Japanese Gardens

You will never see a Japanese garden that does not have a water feature.

Since Japanese water fountains are seen as emblematic of physical and spiritual cleansing, they are often positioned in the doorway of buildings or shrines. Since water is the most important component of any Japanese fountain, the design is generally simple.

You will also see many fountains that have spouts crafted of bamboo. The basin, which tends to be fashioned of stones, collects the water as it trickles down from the bamboo spout. Even when new, it should be made to look as if it has been out in the open for a long time. Natural elements such as plants and rocks are frequently put in place around a fountain so that it seems more interconnected with nature. As you can perhaps surmise, this fountain is symbolic rather than just decorative.

If you want to get a bit more imaginative, try a stone fountain embellished with live bamboo and other natural elements placed on a bed of gravel. Eventually moss begins to creep over the stones and cover them, and as that happens the area starts to look more and more like a natural part of the landscape.

Bigger water features can be developed if there is enough open land. Popular water feature enhancements are a koi pond or any sort of little pool, or even a wandering brook.

There are alternative alternatives if you do not want to put water in your Japanese fountain. Many people choose to represent water with sand, gravel, or rocks rather than putting in real water. In addition, flat rocks can be laid out close enough together to give the impression of a babbling brook.


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A water source and an electrical socket are two crucial items that many people do not consider when determining where they want to place their garden fountain. The practical side of setting one up is often overlooked because people get so focused on the beauty ... read more
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No Japanese garden is finished without a water element. They tend to be placed right at the entrance of Japanese temples and homes because they are regarded as being... read more