The Effect of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Landscaping

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was drastically changed by the introduction of the Normans in the later eleventh century. Architecture and gardening were attributes that the Normans excelled in, trumping that of the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the occupation. But before centering on home-life or having the occasion to think about domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire society. Monasteries and castles served different functions, so while monasteries were massive stone structures built in only the most productive, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the residents focused on understanding offensive and defensive techniques. Relaxing pastimes such as gardening were out of place in these desolate citadels. 315316_0303_top_opening__23887.jpg Berkeley Castle, maybe the most pristine style of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture, still exists in the present day. The keep is reported to have been conceived during the time of William the Conqueror. A significant terrace serves as a discouraging factor to invaders who would try to mine the walls of the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an old yew hedge trimmed into the figure of crude battlements.

Early Crete & The Minoans: Water Features

During archaeological excavations on the island of Crete, many kinds of conduits have been identified. In combination with offering water, they distributed water which accumulated from storms or waste. Virtually all were created from terracotta or even stone. When manufactured from clay, they were usually in the form of canals and circular or rectangular piping. There are two good examples of Minoan terracotta pipes, those with a shortened cone form and a U-shape which have not been seen in any civilization ever since. Knossos Palace had a sophisticated plumbing system made of terracotta pipes which ran up to three meters under ground. The terracotta pipes were additionally made use of for accumulating and storing water. In order to make this feasible, the pipelines had to be created to handle: Below ground Water Transportation: This particular system’s unseen nature might suggest that it was originally planned for some type of ritual or to circulate water to restricted groups. Quality Water Transportation: Some historians think that these pipes were utilized to make a separate distribution process for the palace.

Caring For Outdoor Fountains

Setting up an outdoor wall fountain requires that you bear in mind the dimensions of the space where you are going to put it. It is essential that the wall where you are going to hang it is sturdy enough to support its load. So spaces or walls which are smaller in size will most likely require something lightweight. In order to power the fountain, an electric powered plug will need to be nearby.

Whatever the style of outdoor wall fountain you select, they typically come with simple to understand, step-by-step instructions.

Generally, when you purchase an outdoor wall fountain, it will come in an easy-to-use kit that will include all the needed information to install it properly. The kit provides a submersible pump, hoses as well as the basin, or reservoir. Depending on its size, the basin can normally be hidden quite easily amongst the plants. Once your wall fountain is in place, all that is needed is consistent cleaning and some light maintenance.

Replenish and clean the water on a regular schedule. Remember to remove debris like leaves, twigs or dirt as quickly as possible. Additonally, outdoor fountains should always be shielded from freezing temperatures in wintertime. If left outdoors, your pump could crack as a result of freezing water, so bring it inside during the winter. The bottom line is that if you properly maintain and care for your outdoor fountain, it will bring you joy for many years.

Identifying the Best Material for your Wall Water Fountain

Wall mounted fountains come in numerous kinds of materials.

Fiberglass is ideal for situations in which you need a durable, lightweight, waterproof material. Shipping and delivery of these kinds of fountains are easy because they do not take up a great deal of room on the delivery truck.

There are many materials that can be used in crafting them, such as stone, clay, wood, and metals such as copper, although most indoor ones are made of some type of metal. Despite the recent higher cost of this raw material, copper remains an exceptional option for your fountain if you can afford it. Use cast stone to design a stunning fountain resembling the traditional Mediterranean wall fountains usually found in Italy, Spain, and France. Setting up these molded, cast stone concrete features on the ground against a wall is possible because they are durable and suitable for this kind of use. Available in numerous hues, they are commonly made in the USA due to the high price of transportation.

What Are Large Garden Fountains Made From?

Although they come in different materials, today’s garden fountains tend to be made of metal. Metallic versions offer clean lines and unique sculptural accents and will fit in with nearly any decorative style and budget. If you have a modern-day look and feel to your interior design, your yard and garden should mirror that same style.

One of the more trendy metals for sculptural garden fountains presently is copper. Copper is appropriate for many fountain styles, including tabletop and cascade water fountains, and can be put inside or outside - making it a great choice. Another advantage of copper fountains is they are versatile and come in a wide variety of styles.

If you are drawn to more traditional -looking water fountains, brass is probably the best option for you. Even though they are a bit old-fashioned, brass fountains are quite common because they often include interesting artwork.

The most contemporary metal right now is definitely stainless steel. For an immediate increase in the value and serenity of your garden, get one of the contemporary steel designs. As with most fountains, they are available in many sizes.

Fiberglass is a common material for fountains because you can get the look and feel of metal at a much lower price, and it is lightweight and easier to move than metal. Caring for a fiberglass water fountain is fairly easy, another benefit that consumers love.

The Famous Revelation Fountain at the Gardens of Chatsworth

The renowned British sculptor Angela Conner planned the Chatsworth decorative exterior water feature called “Revelation.” In commemoration of the Queen’s 80th birthday, she was mandated by the late 11th Duke of Devonshire to make a limited edition bust of Queen Elizabeth made of brass and steel in 2004. One of Chatsworth’s first ponds, Jack Pond, had “Revelation” installed in it in 1999. Taking on the form of four large flower petals that open and close with the circulation of water, the metal fountain alternatively conceals and reveals a golden globe at the heart of the sculpture. A metallic globe finished with gold dust was integrated into the sculpture, which stands five meters high and five meters wide. This newest water feature is an exciting and interesting extension to the Gardens of Chatsworth, because the motion of petals is entirely powered by water.

The One Cleaning Solution to NEVER Use On Your Garden Water fountains

Water fountains will last a long time with routine cleaning and maintenance. It is easy for foreign objects to find their way into outside fountains, so keeping it clean is essential. Also, algae tends to build up any place natural light meets water. To stay clear of this, take vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, or sea salt and add right into the water. Bleach can also be dissolved into the water, however this is not an ideal option because it can hurt birds or other animals.

No more than 3-4 months should really go by without an extensive maintaining of a fountain. Before cleaning, all of the water must be taken out. Once it is empty, wash inside the reservoir with a gentle cleanser. A helpful tip is to use a toothbrush if there are little hard-to-reach spots. Make sure all the soap is properly washed off.

Make sure you get rid of any calcium or plankton by taking the pump apart and scrubbing the inside properly. Soaking it in vinegar for a while will make it easier to wash. Mineral or rain water, versus tap water, is ideal in order to prevent any build-up of chemicals inside the pump.

And finally, make sure the water level is always full in order to keep your fountain running optimally. If the water level falls below the pump’s intake level, it can damage the pump and cause it to burn out - something you don't want to happen!


The Dispersion of Outdoor Fountain Design Knowledge
The circulated papers and illustrated publications of the time contributed to the evolution of scientific innovation, and were the chief methods of transmitting useful hydraulic concepts and water feature ideas all through Europe. An unnamed French water... read more
Creators of the First Water Fountains
Water feature designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, often working as architects, sculptors, artisans, engineers and cultivated scholars all in... read more
Ancient Water Fountain Designers
Often serving as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars, all in one, fountain designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the late 18th century. Exemplifying the Renaissance skilled... read more
The Main Characteristics of Ancient Greek Statuary
Archaic Greeks were known for providing the first freestanding statuary; up until then, most carvings were made out of walls and pillars as reliefs. Kouros figures, statues of young, good-looking male or female (kore) Greeks, made up the majority of the... read more