The Genius of Michelangelo’s Roman Water Fountains

Two Florentine artists by the names of Michelangelo and Ammannati designed the oldest Roman wall fountains during the 16th century. Michelangelo’s first fountain was unveiled in 1536 in the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome and makes up part of the front of the Palazzo Senatorio. The building of a conduit from the Aqua Felice to the Capitol, which allowed for a more beautiful water display, was included years later. 94-916-1801__34726.jpg Michelangelo had anticipated this, however, and built a bigger basin styled on the art of the late Cinquecento.

Did the introduction of wall fountains begin with the famed artist? Italy’s fountains certainly show the effect his designs had on the styles found there. Today, this structural style is found at the Fountain of the River Gods at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia 1, and the Fountain of the Mugnone arranged among the stairs on the main axis of the Villa Pratolino.

It seemed to be Michelangelo’s predestination to combine classic Roman characteristics into his fountains instead of using his own considerable talents to design original pieces. An original wall fountain for the top of the passageway of the Belvedere in the Vatican was commissioned to the reknowned sculptor by Julius III (1550-1555). The fountain was to be adorned with a marble figure of Moses hitting a stone from which water flowed. However, an ancient sculpture of Cleopatra replaced the depiction of Moses because the latter would take too much time build. An ancient figure was thought to be quicker to install over the fountain than the creation of a completely new statue by the famed artist.

Explore the World’s Tallest Fountains

Located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, the King Fahd Fountain (1985) is the tallest continually-functioning fountain in the world. The water reaches the amazing height of 260 meters (853 feet) above the Red Sea.

The Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002), comes in 2nd with water levels of 202 meters (663 feet).

Located next to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri, is 3rd placed Gateway Geyser (1995). Regarded as the tallest fountain in the United States, it jets water 192 meters (630 feet) into the sky.

The next on the list is Port Fountain located in Karachi, Pakistan which rockets water 190 meters (620 feet) into the sky.

Number 4 is Water at Fountain Park (1970) situated in Fountain Hills, Arizona - it can attain up to 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are working, even though it normally only reaches up to 91 meters (300 feet).

The Dubai Fountain which made its debut in 2009 is situated next to tallest building worldwide, the famous Burj Khalifa. The fountain shoots water up to 73 meters (240 feet) and performs once every half hour to pre-recorded music - and even has extreme shooters, not used in every show, which reach up to 150 meters (490 feet).

Number 7 is the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, completed in 1970, propelling water 147 meters (482 feet) high.

And at number 8, we have the the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951), measuring 140 meters (460 feet).

Setting Up and Maintaining Outdoor Water fountains

A very important first step is to think about the dimensions of the outdoor wall fountain with regards to the area you have available for it.

A solid wall is definitely needed to hold up its overall weight. Therefore for smaller areas or walls, a lightweight feature is going to be more appropriate. In order to run the fountain, an electrical socket will need to be close by. Whatever the style of outdoor wall fountain you buy, they generally come with easy to follow, step-by-step instructions.

Generally, when you purchase an outdoor wall fountain, it will come in an easy-to-use kit that will include all the information needed to install it properly. In the kit you will find all the needed elements: a submersible pump, hoses and basin, or reservoir. The basin, if it's not too large, can easily be concealedin your garden among the plants. Once your wall fountain is in place, all that is required is regular cleaning and some light maintenance.

Replace the water frequently so it is always clean. Leaves, branches or dirt are types of rubbish which should be cleared away quickly. Excessively cold temperatures can affect your outdoor wall fountain so be sure to protect it during the winter months. If kept outdoors, your pump could split as a result of icy water, so bring it inside during the winter. To sum up, your outdoor wall fountain will continue to be a great add-on to your garden if you keep it well cared for and well maintained.

Water Delivery Solutions in Ancient Rome

Rome’s first raised aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, residents living at higher elevations had to rely on natural springs for their water. Over this period, there were only two other innovations capable of delivering water to higher areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which accumulated rainwater.

Beginning in the sixteenth century, a new system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean segments to deliver water to Pincian Hill. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. The manholes made it less demanding to thoroughly clean the channel, but it was also achievable to use buckets to extract water from the aqueduct, as we discovered with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he possessed the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he died. It appears that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t adequate to satisfy his needs. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat below his property, and he had a shaft established to give him accessibility.

Feng Shui Can Add Alot to Your Yard

When applied to your yard, feng shui design will introduce its healthy energy into your home as well.

When incorporating feng shui design into your yard, even a very small area works. Of course, a big area is ideal if you have it, but rest assured that feng shui works just as well in smaller areas as well.

Feng shui methods are the same whether you are working in your garden or your residence. In order to understand the energy map, or bagua, of your garden, you will first want to understand your home’s bagua.

There are five elements in feng shui theory, and you should understand how to apply each of them to maximize the energy.

The Earth element, for example, should be positioned in the northeast portion of your garden which is linked to the personal growth and self-cultivation energy in feng shui design. The ideal addition to the northeast corner of your yard might be a serene Zen garden decorated with natural stone, as they represent the Earth element in feng shui.

Anyone thinking about incorporating a water feature into their garden should place it in one of these feng shui areas: North (career & path in life), Southeast (money and abundance), or East (health & family).

The Dispersion of Fountain Design Innovation

Throughout the European countries, the chief means of dissiminating useful hydraulic understanding and fountain design ideas were the published papers and illustrated books of the day, which added to the evolution of scientific development. An unnamed French water fountain designer came to be an globally celebrated hydraulic innovator in the later part of the 1500's. With Royal mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he started his work in Italy, building know-how in garden design and grottoes with integrated and ingenious water features. In France, near the end of his life, he wrote “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a book that became the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Classical antiquity hydraulic developments were detailed as well as revisions to essential classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs in the publication. Archimedes, the developer of the water screw, had his work featured and these integrated a mechanical way to move water. An decorative water fountain with the sun heating up the water in two vessels hidden in a neighboring area was shown in one illustration. What occurs is the hot liquid expanded, goes up and locks up the conduits leading to the water feature, and thus leading to activation. Pumps, water wheels, water attributes and garden pond styles are covered in the text.

Gardens of Chatworth: The Revelation Fountain

Designed by popular English sculptor Angela Conner, "Revelation" is the most recent addition to the Chatsworth decorative garden water fountains. She was delegated by the now deceased 11th Duke of Devonshire to make a limited edition bust of Queen Elizabeth, in 2004/5 in celebration of the Queen’s 80th birthday celebration. In 1999 Revelation was installed in Jack Pond, one of Chatsworth’s first ponds. It takes on the configuration of four large flower petals designed from steel which opens and close with the water flow, alternatively camouflaging and revealing a golden globe at the sculpture’s heart. A gold dust decorated metallic globe was manufactured and included to the prominent sculpture standing five meters high and five meters wide. This newest water feature is an exciting and interesting extension to the Gardens of Chatsworth, because the movement of flower petals is totally driven by water.


The Latest Addition to the Chatsworth Gardens: "Revelation"
Designed by celebrated English sculptor Angela Conner, Revelation is the latest addition to the Chatsworth ornamental garden fountains. In commemoration of the Queen’s 80th birthday celebration, she... read more
How Technical Designs of Outdoor Spread
Throughout Europe, the primary means of spreading useful hydraulic understanding and fountain design suggestions were the circulated papers and illustrated books of the day, which contributed to the development of scientific... read more
Gian Bernini's Public Fountains
There are numerous celebrated water features in Rome’s city center. One of the finest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, virtually all of them were designed, conceptualized and... read more
Gian Bernini's Water Fountains
There are countless famed Roman fountains in its city center. One of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, nearly all of them were planned, conceptualized and built by Gian... read more
Rome, Gian Bernini, And Fountains
In Rome’s city center, there are countless easily recognized water features. One of the best ever sculptors and designers of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini fashioned, created and constructed nearly all of them. Also a city builder, he had capabilities... read more
Rome, Gian Bernini, And Water Fountains
In Rome’s city center, there are many celebrated water fountains. Practically all of them were planned, conceived and built by one of the... read more