The Very First Water Features of History

Water fountains were originally practical in function, used to deliver water from rivers or creeks to towns and hamlets, supplying the residents with fresh water to drink, wash, and cook with. A supply of water higher in elevation than the fountain was necessary to pressurize the movement and send water squirting from the fountain's spout, a system without equal until the late 19th century. Inspirational and spectacular, big water fountains have been constructed as monuments in nearly all cultures. If you saw the earliest fountains, you probably would not recognize them as fountains. A stone basin, carved from rock, was the first fountain, utilized for holding water for drinking and ceremonial purposes. 115439-7705__00781.jpg Natural stone basins as fountains have been discovered from 2,000 BC. The first civilizations that made use of fountains relied on gravity to push water through spigots. These historic fountains were created to be functional, usually situated along aqueducts, streams and rivers to supply drinking water. Creatures, Gods, and spectral figures dominated the early ornate Roman fountains, beginning to show up in about 6 B.C.. Water for the community fountains of Rome was delivered to the city via a elaborate system of water aqueducts.

Can Outdoor Fountains Help Cleanse The Air?

You can animate your living area by installing an indoor wall fountain. Putting in this sort of indoor feature positively affects your senses and your general health. Scientific research supports the theory that water fountains are excellent for you. The negative ions produced by water features are countered by the positive ions emitted by present-day conveniences. Favorable changes to both your emotional and physical well-being take place when the negative ions are overpowered by the positive ions. They also raise serotonin levels, so you start to feel more aware, relaxed and revitalized. Indoor wall fountains {generate negative ions which serve to elevate your mood and eliminate air pollutants.

They also help to eliminate allergies, contaminants as well as other types of irritants. And finally, water fountains are excellent at absorbing dust and microbes floating in the air and as a result in improving your general health.

The Genius of Michelangelo’s Roman Water Fountains

During the 16th century two celebrated Florentine sculptors by the names of Michelangelo and Ammannati made the first wall fountains in Rome. The fountain in the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome, which was completed in 1536 and became part of the façade of the Palazzo Senatorio, was Michelangelo’s first design. Some years later, a more extravagant water display was made possible with the extension of the Aqua Felice into the Capitol. Michelangelo, however, had expected this which led to use of a larger basin styled on the forms of the late Cinquecento.

The question remains as to whether the famous sculptor was the first to create wall fountains. His designs undoubtedly inspired the style of fountain which dominates throughout Italy. The styles found at the Fountain of the River Gods at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia 1, and the Fountain of the Mugnone, set between the stairway on the main axis of the Villa Pratolino, are other examples of this style.

Regrettably, Michelangelo was destined to put his own talents aside and combine conventional elements into fountains based on Roman styles. A new fountain at the top of the Belvedere in the Vatican was authorized by Julius III (1550-1555) and it fell to the great sculptor to design an archetypal structure. A marble Moses hitting the rock from which water flowed was to enhance the fountain. The idea of the Moses figure was abandoned, however, because of the time it would take to create it and was therefore replaced by an antique image of Cleopatra. It was considered easier to use a classic piece of art above the fountain rather than have the illustrious artist design a totally new figure.

Installing a Wall Water Feature in Your House

Make any room more attractive with a wall fountain. The effects of the water sounds include bringing tranquility and calm to the room. People tend to set up their wall fountains in entryways, but, in fact, they can be a wonderful addition to any room where everyone gathers. Although the instructions for hanging one are fairly straightforward there will be small variations depending on the model. There are typically several components that need to be assembled. The bottom and the upper part will need to be put together as well as the pump and the tubing. Be sure to review the instructions before starting to make sure it is done right. You should find the procedure relatively straightforward. Keep in mind, though, that each style might need a slight modification. Another person can be useful to hold the wall fountain in the appropriate spot so that you can mark the wall. A level is the ideal to ensure it is installed straight. Both the very top and the base should be marked. Your wall fountain can be installed using one of two methods. You can place the screws in the wall and slide them into the holes on the back of the wall fountain. One other way is to hang it on brackets you have secured to the wall. The bracket alternative is best, specifically for wall fountains that are big and heavy. Put a mark on the wall where the brackets will best go on your wall fountain. Use a drill to make the pilot holes on the wall for the drywall anchors. Affix the anchors by carefully hammering them into the wall. Affix the brackets by ensuring they are level and then screwing them into the wall using a drill or screwdriver. Hang your wall fountain by fastening it onto the brackets. Make sure that it is properly straight and not loose. If the positioning is correct, it’s time to add some water. The pump should be completely submerged under water. The water will start to circulate as soon as you plug in your fountain. Slowly put in more water until it comes within an inch of the top of the basin. Never fill the basin all the way to the top or it will overflow anytime the pump is not on. Whenever the water is not being pumped, it all settles at the bottom part which causes the water level to rise. If there is too much water, it will spill out and can harm your flooring and furniture.

The Defining Characteristics of Ancient Greek Statues

Archaic Greeks were renowned for creating the first freestanding statuary; up till then, most carvings were formed out of walls and pillars as reliefs. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi, regarded by the Greeks to represent beauty, had one foot stretched out of a strict forward-facing posture and the male figurines were always unclothed, with a powerful, sturdy physique. In about 650 BC, the variations of the kouroi became life-sized. The Archaic period was tumultuous for the Greeks as they progressed into more polished forms of federal government and art, and gained more information and facts about the peoples and civilizations outside of Greece. The Arcadian battles, the Spartan invasion of Samos, and other wars between city-states are good examples of the sorts of conflicts that emerged commonly, which is consistent with other times of historical transformation.

How Technical Designs And Styles of Water Fountains Spread

Spreading practical hydraulic facts and fountain design ideas all through Europe was accomplished with the published papers and illustrated books of the time. An internationally celebrated leader in hydraulics in the late 1500's was a French water fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. By designing landscapes and grottoes with incorporated and clever water features, he started off his profession in Italy by earning Royal mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. In France, near the closure of his life, he published “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a book which became the primary text on hydraulic technology and engineering. Classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs were elaborated as well as changes to essential classical antiquity hydraulic advancements in the book. Prominent among these works were those of Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, a mechanical way of moving water. Sunlight heating up liquid in a pair of vessels hidden in a room next to an beautiful fountain was shown in one illustration. The hot water expands and then rises and closes the water lines thereby triggering the water fountain. Garden ponds as well as pumps, water wheels, and water feature styles are incorporated in the book.

The First Contemporary Outdoor Wall Fountains

Hundreds of classic Greek texts were translated into Latin under the authority of the scholarly Pope Nicholas V, who ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455. It was imperative for him to embellish the city of Rome to make it worthy of being known as the capital of the Christian world. At the behest of the Pope, the Aqua Vergine, a damaged aqueduct which had carried clean drinking water into Rome from eight miles away, was renovated starting in 1453. A mostra, a monumental celebratory fountain built by ancient Romans to mark the point of arrival of an aqueduct, was a tradition which was revived by Nicholas V. The Trevi Fountain now occupies the space previously filled with a wall fountain built by Leon Battista Albert, an architect commissioned by the Pope. The aqueduct he had refurbished included modifications and extensions which eventually enabled it to supply water to the Trevi Fountain as well as the famed baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona.


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